1. It helps the citizens to know their rights : The first goal of citizenship education is to help the citizens to identify their fundamental rights and ensure that these rights are not infringed upon. It is this awareness that enables the citizens to seek redress whenever their privileges are denied or violated either by the state, organization or an individual.
2. It promotes responsible citizenship: Citizenship education enables the citizens to be law-abiding in their relationship with the government and fellow citizens in a state.
3. It helps to promote unity in a state: Citizenship education teaches tolerance, love and hospitality. These are the basic ingredients of unity. Citizenship education enables citizens to see far beyond ethnic, tribal and religious lines. Hence, there is a promotion of unity among the diverse groups and interests in society.
4. It promotes law and order in society : Citizenship education enables the citizens to be law-abiding and show respect for the nation’s constitution. Informed citizens will observe decorum in public places, respect other citizens’ rights including respect for constituted authority.
5. It prepares the youths for leadership : Citizenship education equips the youths with the relevant knowledge and skills needed for leadership. It takes informed youths to make a great nation.
6. It helps to promote development and progress in the society : The knowledge of citizenship education creates an environment of unity and peace which enables development and progress in the society.
7. It ensures political stability in the country : A country where people know their rights and obligations tend to enjoy relative peace that enhances political and economic stability in the state. Besides, citizenship education helps to reduce cases of human rights abuses in society. The level of acrimony is reduced thereby ensuring stability in the country.


2(a) Three factors that determine the legitimacy of a constituted authority in the society are:

  1. Legal Basis: The legitimacy of a constituted authority is determined by its adherence to the legal framework of the country. This includes constitutional provisions, statutory laws, and legal procedures for the establishment and exercise of authority. Authorities that operate within the confines of the law are considered legitimate.
  2. Consent and Acceptance: Legitimacy also depends on the consent and acceptance of the governed. When the majority of the population recognizes and accepts the authority’s right to govern, it enhances its legitimacy. This can be through democratic elections, popular support, or social consensus.
  3. Accountability and Transparency: A legitimate authority is accountable to the people it governs. It is transparent in its decision-making processes, ensures public participation, and is open to scrutiny. Accountability mechanisms, such as checks and balances, independent oversight institutions, and mechanisms for redress, contribute to the legitimacy of an authority.
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Inter-communal relationship is a relationship which exists between two or more communities.

1.inter-communial recreational activities.
sport has always been a way of unifying the society so it can help to promote intercommunial relationship because it would bring different people together, when there is any competition. 
2.through peaceful co-existence. 
living in peace with one another in the community would bring about positive inter-communal relationship which would help to promote unity in the communities involved. 
by tolerating one another It will help to avoid violence,intercommunial conflict or any kind of between communities.
4.inter-communal/tribal marriage: 
inter-communal marriage can help booste inter-communal relationship.

1. National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) 

2. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) 
3. The Nigeria Police Force (NPF)

1. Increased risk of death. When people do not follow their doctor’s orders, they are more likely to die from their illness. This is because they may not take their medication as prescribed, or they may not make lifestyle changes that are necessary to manage their condition.
2. Increased risk of complications. Not following medical advice can also lead to complications from illness. For example, if someone with diabetes does not control their blood sugar levels, they are at risk for developing serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, and blindness.
3. Increased cost of healthcare. When people do not follow their doctor’s orders, they are more likely to need more expensive medical care. This is because their illness may progress to a more serious stage, or they may develop complications that require hospitalization.
4. Spread of disease. People who do not follow medical advice for infectious diseases are more likely to spread the disease to others. This can lead to outbreaks of disease, which can have a significant impact on public health.
5. Loss of productivity. When people are sick, they are less productive at work and school. This can lead to lost wages and productivity, which can have a negative impact on the economy.
6. Reduced quality of life. When people do not follow medical advice, they are more likely to experience a reduced quality of life. This is because they may be in pain, they may be unable to participate in activities they enjoy, and they may be worried about their health.



i) Mother to child transmission e.g Breast milk.
ii) unprotected sex.
iii) sharing of unsterilized sharp objects.
iv) through unscreened blood transfusion.
(Pick 3)

i) Too few people with HIV are aware of their infection
ii) Poorly coordinated health system 
iii) Poverty 
iv) Stigma and discrimination.
(Pick 3)



(i)Violence and Criminal Activities: Cultism often involves the use of violence, intimidation, and criminal activities such as robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and extortion.
(ii)Loss of Lives and Property: Cult clashes and rivalries can result in frequent clashes between different cult groups, leading to loss of lives and destruction of property.
(iii)Breakdown of Law and Order: Cultism undermines the rule of law by creating a parallel system of authority and justice.
(iv)Social Instability: Cult activities can disrupt social harmony and stability within communities.
(v)Cult Recruitment and Exploitation: Cults often employ deceptive tactics to recruit vulnerable individuals, particularly young people. 
(vi)Erosion of Ethical Values: Cults often promote ideologies that contradict societal norms and ethical values. 
(vii)Academic Disruption: Cultism frequently infiltrates educational institutions, leading to the disruption of academic activities.


(i)High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality create an environment where vulnerable individuals are more likely to be recruited into cults.

(ii)Inadequate resources, corruption, and a lack of proper training and coordination among law enforcement agencies can hamper their ability to effectively combat cult activities.

(iii)One significant hindrance to eradicating cultism in Nigeria is the lack of effective law enforcement.

(iv)Limited public awareness and understanding of the dangers and consequences of cultism can hinder eradication efforts.

(v)Cults employ sophisticated techniques of manipulation and indoctrination to control their members’ thoughts, beliefs, and actions



(i) Policy Development and Implementation: Public servants play a crucial role in developing policies and strategies to address societal issues and achieve national goals. They research, analyze, and make recommendations to policymakers, and then implement approved policies, monitoring their progress and making adjustments as needed.

(ii) Service Delivery: Public servants are responsible for delivering public services to citizens. This includes providing healthcare, education, transportation, infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and more. They work to ensure these services are accessible, efficient, and of high quality.

(iii) Regulation and Compliance: Public servants enforce regulations and ensure compliance with laws and standards. They oversee sectors such as finance, commerce, health, and the environment, developing and implementing regulations, conducting inspections, and taking enforcement actions when necessary.

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(iv) Budgeting and Financial Management: Public servants are involved in the formulation and execution of government budgets. They prepare budget proposals, allocate funds to different sectors, monitor expenditures, and ensure financial accountability and transparency.

(v) Human Resource Management: Public servants are responsible for managing the government’s workforce. They recruit, hire, train, and evaluate employees, promote merit-based appointments, and develop policies for staff welfare, performance management, and career advancement.

(vi) Public Engagement and Communication: Public servants engage with the public, communicating government policies, programs, and initiatives. They facilitate citizen participation, gather feedback, address concerns, and promote transparency and accountability.

(vii) Diplomacy and International Relations: Public servants represent Nigeria in diplomatic and international affairs. They participate in negotiations, promote trade and economic cooperation, manage consular services, and work towards regional and global partnerships.

(viii) Research and Development: Public servants conduct research and analysis to inform policymaking and improve service delivery. They generate data, evaluate existing programs, identify emerging trends, and propose innovative solutions to address societal challenges.

(ix) Crisis and Disaster Management: Public servants play a vital role in managing crises and disasters. They develop contingency plans, coordinate emergency response efforts, provide relief and support to affected communities, and facilitate recovery and reconstruction.

(x) Monitoring and Evaluation: Public servants monitor and evaluate the performance and impact of government programs and policies. They assess their effectiveness, efficiency, and outcomes, and make recommendations for improvement.

(9a)The Executive arm of government: This arm of government is concerned primarily with the administration of the state. It ensures that the laws made by the legislature are properly executed by its members. The executive arm is headed by the President of the state. It is made up of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals. This arm wields the greatest power within the government because of the role it plays in governance.

The head of this arm is usually elected by the electorates. When the head gets into power, it makes appointments for the different ministries and parastatals and build a cabinet. The President is the head of the Armed Forces. This arm of government carries on ceremonial functions as well in representation of the state.

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