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Consumer behavior refers to the study of individuals or groups and the processes they undertake to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas in order to satisfy their needs and desires.

(i) Social norms: Social groups often establish and reinforce norms, which are shared beliefs about what is considered acceptable or desirable behavior within a particular group. These norms can influence consumer behavior by shaping individuals’ preferences, attitudes, and purchasing decisions.

(ii) Reference groups: Reference groups are social groups to which individuals compare themselves and use as a basis for evaluating their own beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. These groups can have a significant influence on consumer behavior.

(i) Personal factors: These factors include an individual’s age, gender, occupation, lifestyle, personality traits, and personal preferences. For example, a person’s age can influence their consumption patterns, with younger individuals often being more open to adopting new technologies compared to older generations.

(ii) Social factors: Social influences such as family, friends, social class, and cultural norms can significantly impact consumer behavior. The opinions and recommendations of close contacts, as well as societal expectations and cultural values, can shape purchasing decisions. For instance, a person from a collectivist culture may prioritize group harmony and conformity when making consumption choices.

(iii) Psychological factors: These factors pertain to the internal psychological processes that influence consumer behavior. They include perception, motivation, learning, beliefs, attitudes, and emotions. Consumers’ perceptions of a product or brand, their underlying motivations, and their attitudes towards certain products can all affect their buying decisions.

(iv) Situational Factors: Situational factors are temporary or immediate circumstances that can impact consumer behavior. These factors include the physical environment, time constraints, availability of alternatives, and situational influences like point-of-purchase displays or sales promotions. For instance, a consumer may make an impulse purchase due to an attractive in-store display or a limited-time discount offer.


(i) Age and Life Stage: Different age groups have different needs, preferences, and purchasing power. For example, teenagers may be more inclined towards trendy fashion, while older adults may prioritize health and comfort. Life stage, such as being a student, a working professional, or a retiree, also impacts buying behavior.

(ii) Occupation and Income: Occupation and income level play a vital role in determining what consumers can afford and the value they place on certain products or services. Professionals in high-paying jobs may be more willing to spend on luxury goods, while those with limited incomes may prioritize basic necessities.

(iii) Lifestyle and Personality: Consumers with specific lifestyles and personality traits tend to have distinct buying preferences. For instance, an adventurous and active individual may be interested in outdoor sports equipment, while someone who values self-care might gravitate towards wellness products.

(iv) Social and Family Roles: Social roles, such as being a parent, spouse, or caregiver, influence purchasing decisions. Parents may prioritize buying products for their children, while caregivers may focus on products that enhance the well-being of their dependents. Family influences, such as the influence of a spouse or significant other, can also impact buying choices.

(v) Motivation and Perception: Personal motivation and perception play a significant role in consumer behavior. Motivations can vary, such as the desire for status, convenience, or savings. Perception, including beliefs, attitudes, and personal values, shapes how consumers perceive and evaluate products and brands.


Culture refers to the shared beliefs, customs, values, behaviors, and artifacts that characterize a group of people. It encompasses the ideas, knowledge, and practices passed down from one generation to another.

(i) Tradition: Tradition refers to a set of customs, practices, or beliefs that are passed down from generation to generation. It represents the accumulated wisdom, rituals, and ways of life that have endured over time. Traditions often hold deep emotional and cultural significance and are regarded as valuable elements of a society’s heritage.

(ii) Custom: Custom refers to a specific practice or behavior that is widely accepted and followed within a particular society or community. Customs are established patterns of social behavior that regulate interactions, rituals, and traditions. They can include ceremonies, greetings, dress codes, dining etiquette, and other behaviors that reflect the values and norms of a specific group or culture. Customs often serve as guidelines for appropriate behavior and help to maintain social order and cohesion.


(i) Express Contract: An express contract is formed when the parties involved explicitly state the terms and conditions of the agreement, either verbally or in writing. This type of contract clearly outlines the rights and obligations of each party. For example, signing a lease agreement for an apartment with all the terms and conditions explicitly mentioned would be an express contract.

(ii) Implied Contract: An implied contract is formed based on the conduct of the parties involved, rather than explicit written or verbal communication. The terms of an implied contract are inferred from the actions, behavior, or circumstances surrounding the agreement. For example, when you go to a restaurant, it is implied that you will pay for the food and services provided, even though there is no explicit agreement.

(iii) Unilateral Contract: A unilateral contract is a type of agreement where one party makes a promise in exchange for the other party’s performance of a specific action or task. The contract is only binding if the second party fulfills the required action. For example, offering a reward for finding a lost item creates a unilateral contract, as the person who finds the item must perform the action of returning it to claim the reward.

Misrepresentation refers to a false statement or assertion made by one party to another during the negotiation or formation of a contract. It involves the communication of incorrect information that influences the decision-making process of the other party.

(i) Termination by Performance: A contract can be terminated by performance when both parties fulfill their obligations as specified in the agreement. Once all the terms and conditions have been met and the agreed-upon actions or deliverables have been completed or provided, the contract is considered to be successfully performed and terminated.

(ii) Termination by Agreement: Contracts can be terminated by mutual agreement between the parties involved. If both parties agree to end the contract before its completion, they can enter into a separate agreement to terminate the original contract. The termination agreement should outline the terms and conditions under which the termination occurs and any remaining obligations or responsibilities.

(iii) Termination by Breach: A contract can be terminated by one party due to the other party’s breach of the contract’s terms and conditions. A breach occurs when one party fails to fulfill its obligations as outlined in the contract. The non-breaching party can choose to terminate the contract and seek remedies for the damages caused by the breach, such as compensation for losses incurred.



Hire purchase is a financial arrangement in which a buyer agrees to acquire a product or asset by paying in installments over a specified period. The buyer takes possession of the item immediately, but legal ownership remains with the seller until the final payment is made.

(i) Easy acquisition: Hire purchase allows buyers to acquire goods or assets without needing to pay the entire purchase price upfront.

(ii) Flexibility in payment: Buyers can spread the cost of the purchase over an extended period, making it easier to manage their finances.

(iii) Immediate use of the asset: The buyer can start using the item or asset right away, even though ownership is not yet transferred.

(iv) Potential tax advantages: In certain jurisdictions, buyers may be able to claim tax benefits on hire purchase agreements

(v) Improved credit opportunities: Successfully completing a hire purchase agreement can contribute to building or improving the buyer’s credit history.

(i) Increased sales: Hire purchase arrangements attract customers who may not have sufficient funds for an outright purchase, thus expanding the market and increasing sales opportunities for the seller.

(ii) Competitive advantage: Offering hire purchase as a payment option can differentiate a seller from competitors, attracting customers who prefer the flexibility of installment payments.

(iii) Steady income stream: Sellers receive regular payments from buyers over the duration of the hire purchase agreement, providing a steady and predictable income stream.

(iv) Collateral security: The seller retains legal ownership of the item until the final payment is made, serving as collateral security in case of default by the buyer.

(v) Interest income: Sellers often charge interest on the installment payments, generating additional income over and above the purchase price of the item.

A limited liability company (LLC) is a type of business entity that combines elements of both a corporation and a partnership. It provides limited liability protection to its owners, known as members, while also allowing for flexibility in management and taxation.

(i) Unlimited personal liability
(ii) Lack of continuity
(iii) Limited access to capital

(i) Shared Responsibility and Resources: In a partnership, the workload, decision-making, and financial responsibilities are shared among two or more partners. This allows for a division of labor and expertise, enabling partners to leverage each other’s strengths and resources to effectively manage and grow the business.

(ii) Increased Capital and Borrowing Capacity: Partnerships have an advantage over sole proprietorships in terms of capital and borrowing capacity. With multiple partners, there is a greater potential to pool financial resources and invest more capital into the business. Additionally, lenders may view partnerships as more favorable when considering loan applications, as the risk is distributed among multiple individuals.

(iii) Shared Risk and Support: Partnerships offer emotional and practical support to the partners. The burden and risks of running a business are shared among partners, which can help alleviate stress and provide a support system. Partners can share expertise, ideas, and experiences, fostering a collaborative environment that can lead to better decision-making and problem-solving.


A salesman refers to an individual who is employed by a company or works independently to promote and sell products or services to customers. They are primarily involved in the sales process and aim to generate revenue for the organization. Salesmen typically focus on meeting sales targets, building customer relationships, and closing deals WHILE
A sales career, on the other hand, encompasses a broader perspective. It refers to a professional path or occupation that involves engaging in sales-related activities as a long-term commitment. A sales career may include various roles and positions within the sales domain, such as sales representative, sales manager, sales director, or sales executive. It represents a chosen profession where individuals build their expertise, knowledge, and skills in the field of sales.


(i) Product Knowledge
(ii) Communication Skills
(iii) Persuasion and Negotiation Skills

(i) Personalized Interaction: Personal selling allows for direct and personalized interaction between the salesperson and the customer. This enables the salesperson to understand the specific needs and preferences of the customer, tailor their approach, and provide customized solutions.

(ii) Building Relationships: Personal selling provides an opportunity to build long-term relationships with customers. Through regular contact and follow-up, salespeople can establish trust and credibility, leading to repeat business and potential referrals.

(iii) Immediate Feedback: During personal selling, salespeople can receive immediate feedback from customers. This feedback helps them understand customer perceptions, address concerns, and make necessary adjustments to their selling approach or the product/service being offered. It facilitates real-time adaptation and improvement.


(i) Increased Credibility: When a salesperson possesses in-depth knowledge about the product they are selling, they appear more credible and trustworthy to customers.

(ii) Effective Communication: Having thorough product knowledge enables salespeople to effectively communicate the features, benefits, and value of the product to customers.

(iii) Overcoming Objections: A salesperson armed with extensive product knowledge can proactively address objections raised by customers

(iv) Building Trust and Confidence: Customers are more likely to trust a salesperson who demonstrates a strong command of the product they are selling.

(v) Upselling and Cross-selling Opportunities: Product knowledge allows salespeople to identify additional opportunities for upselling and cross-selling.

(i) Pushiness: Avoid being overly aggressive or pushy with your sales approach. Pressuring customers into making a purchase can create a negative experience and damage relationships. Instead, focus on building rapport, understanding customer needs, and providing valuable information to assist them in making an informed decision.

(ii) Lack of Listening: Effective salespeople actively listen to their customers. Avoid the mistake of dominating the conversation and failing to understand customer preferences, concerns, or objections. Listening attentively helps you tailor your pitch and address specific customer needs more effectively.

(iii) Dishonesty: Honesty and integrity are crucial in sales. Avoid misleading or making false claims about your product or service. Customers appreciate transparency, and building trust is essential for long-term relationships. Be truthful about what your product can and cannot do.

(iv) Ignoring Follow-up: Following up with customers after a sale or initial contact is vital for building relationships and securing repeat business. Neglecting to follow up can make customers feel undervalued or forgotten. Stay in touch, provide post-sale support, and nurture ongoing connections with your customers.

(v) Neglecting Product Knowledge: Failing to acquire comprehensive knowledge about your product or service can hinder your ability to effectively sell and address customer inquiries. Avoid relying solely on general information or assumptions. Take the time to understand your offering inside-out, ensuring you can confidently present its features, benefits, and value proposition to customers



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