(i)Civic education equips individuals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to become active and informed citizens.
(ii)Civic education is vital for the functioning and strengthening of democratic systems. It helps individuals understand the importance of democratic values.
(iii)Civic education promotes social cohesion by fostering a sense of shared identity, values, and goals within a diverse society.
(iv)Civic education encourages individuals to actively engage in their communities and take responsibility for addressing social issues.
(v)Civic education instills values such as respect, tolerance, integrity, and social responsibility. It helps individuals develop an ethical framework that guides their behavior and decision-making.
(vi)civic education prepares individuals to be active participants in the global community. It promotes understanding of global issues, cultural diversity, and interdependence.
(vii)Civic education equips individuals with a global perspective, enabling them to understand global challenges, interconnections, and their responsibilities as global citizens.
(viii)Civic education emphasizes the value of diversity, promoting respect for different cultures, beliefs, and identities. It encourages dialogue, understanding, and appreciation of diverse perspectives.


(i)Fostering Civic Knowledge and Understanding: Citizenship education equips individuals with knowledge and understanding of their country’s history, political systems, institutions, and cultural heritage.

(ii)Developing Civic Skills and Competencies: Citizenship education cultivates essential civic skills and competencies, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, effective communication, and collaboration.

(iii)Promoting Active Citizenship and Civic Engagement: Citizenship education encourages active participation in civic and community affairs. It promotes a sense of responsibility and empowers individuals

(iv)Instilling Values and Ethical Behavior: Citizenship education helps instill values such as respect, tolerance, empathy, and integrity. These values promote social cohesion, cooperation, and ethical behavior among citizens.

(v)Cultivating National Identity and Unity: Citizenship education plays a vital role in cultivating a sense of national identity and unity. It helps citizens develop a shared understanding of their nation’s heritage, symbols, traditions, and aspirations.

(vi)Enhancing Democratic Participation: Citizenship education is closely linked to democratic participation. It educates individuals about their rights, responsibilities, and the importance of participating in democratic processes, such as voting etc

(vii)Building Social Cohesion and Understanding: Citizenship education promotes social cohesion by encouraging citizens to appreciate and embrace the diversity within their nation.It emphasizes the importance of understanding and respecting different cultures, religions, and perspectives.


2(a) Three factors that determine the legitimacy of a constituted authority in the society are:

  1. Legal Basis: The legitimacy of a constituted authority is determined by its adherence to the legal framework of the country. This includes constitutional provisions, statutory laws, and legal procedures for the establishment and exercise of authority. Authorities that operate within the confines of the law are considered legitimate.
  2. Consent and Acceptance: Legitimacy also depends on the consent and acceptance of the governed. When the majority of the population recognizes and accepts the authority’s right to govern, it enhances its legitimacy. This can be through democratic elections, popular support, or social consensus.
  3. Accountability and Transparency: A legitimate authority is accountable to the people it governs. It is transparent in its decision-making processes, ensures public participation, and is open to scrutiny. Accountability mechanisms, such as checks and balances, independent oversight institutions, and mechanisms for redress, contribute to the legitimacy of an authority.



Inter-communal relationship is a relationship which exists between two or more communities.

1.inter-communial recreational activities.
sport has always been a way of unifying the society so it can help to promote intercommunial relationship because it would bring different people together, when there is any competition. 
2.through peaceful co-existence. 
living in peace with one another in the community would bring about positive inter-communal relationship which would help to promote unity in the communities involved. 
by tolerating one another It will help to avoid violence,intercommunial conflict or any kind of between communities.
4.inter-communal/tribal marriage: 
inter-communal marriage can help booste inter-communal relationship.

1. National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) 

2. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) 
3. The Nigeria Police Force (NPF)

1. Increased risk of death. When people do not follow their doctor’s orders, they are more likely to die from their illness. This is because they may not take their medication as prescribed, or they may not make lifestyle changes that are necessary to manage their condition.
2. Increased risk of complications. Not following medical advice can also lead to complications from illness. For example, if someone with diabetes does not control their blood sugar levels, they are at risk for developing serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, and blindness.
3. Increased cost of healthcare. When people do not follow their doctor’s orders, they are more likely to need more expensive medical care. This is because their illness may progress to a more serious stage, or they may develop complications that require hospitalization.
4. Spread of disease. People who do not follow medical advice for infectious diseases are more likely to spread the disease to others. This can lead to outbreaks of disease, which can have a significant impact on public health.
5. Loss of productivity. When people are sick, they are less productive at work and school. This can lead to lost wages and productivity, which can have a negative impact on the economy.
6. Reduced quality of life. When people do not follow medical advice, they are more likely to experience a reduced quality of life. This is because they may be in pain, they may be unable to participate in activities they enjoy, and they may be worried about their health.


i) Mother to child transmission e.g Breast milk.
ii) unprotected sex.
iii) sharing of unsterilized sharp objects.
iv) through unscreened blood transfusion.
(Pick 3)

See also  TIME

i) Too few people with HIV are aware of their infection
ii) Poorly coordinated health system 
iii) Poverty 
iv) Stigma and discrimination.
(Pick 3)



(i)Violence and Criminal Activities: Cultism often involves the use of violence, intimidation, and criminal activities such as robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and extortion.
(ii)Loss of Lives and Property: Cult clashes and rivalries can result in frequent clashes between different cult groups, leading to loss of lives and destruction of property.
(iii)Breakdown of Law and Order: Cultism undermines the rule of law by creating a parallel system of authority and justice.
(iv)Social Instability: Cult activities can disrupt social harmony and stability within communities.
(v)Cult Recruitment and Exploitation: Cults often employ deceptive tactics to recruit vulnerable individuals, particularly young people. 
(vi)Erosion of Ethical Values: Cults often promote ideologies that contradict societal norms and ethical values. 
(vii)Academic Disruption: Cultism frequently infiltrates educational institutions, leading to the disruption of academic activities.


(i)High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality create an environment where vulnerable individuals are more likely to be recruited into cults.

(ii)Inadequate resources, corruption, and a lack of proper training and coordination among law enforcement agencies can hamper their ability to effectively combat cult activities.

(iii)One significant hindrance to eradicating cultism in Nigeria is the lack of effective law enforcement.

(iv)Limited public awareness and understanding of the dangers and consequences of cultism can hinder eradication efforts.

(v)Cults employ sophisticated techniques of manipulation and indoctrination to control their members’ thoughts, beliefs, and actions



(i) Policy Development and Implementation: Public servants play a crucial role in developing policies and strategies to address societal issues and achieve national goals. They research, analyze, and make recommendations to policymakers, and then implement approved policies, monitoring their progress and making adjustments as needed.

(ii) Service Delivery: Public servants are responsible for delivering public services to citizens. This includes providing healthcare, education, transportation, infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and more. They work to ensure these services are accessible, efficient, and of high quality.

(iii) Regulation and Compliance: Public servants enforce regulations and ensure compliance with laws and standards. They oversee sectors such as finance, commerce, health, and the environment, developing and implementing regulations, conducting inspections, and taking enforcement actions when necessary.

(iv) Budgeting and Financial Management: Public servants are involved in the formulation and execution of government budgets. They prepare budget proposals, allocate funds to different sectors, monitor expenditures, and ensure financial accountability and transparency.

(v) Human Resource Management: Public servants are responsible for managing the government’s workforce. They recruit, hire, train, and evaluate employees, promote merit-based appointments, and develop policies for staff welfare, performance management, and career advancement.

(vi) Public Engagement and Communication: Public servants engage with the public, communicating government policies, programs, and initiatives. They facilitate citizen participation, gather feedback, address concerns, and promote transparency and accountability.


(vii) Diplomacy and International Relations: Public servants represent Nigeria in diplomatic and international affairs. They participate in negotiations, promote trade and economic cooperation, manage consular services, and work towards regional and global partnerships.

(viii) Research and Development: Public servants conduct research and analysis to inform policymaking and improve service delivery. They generate data, evaluate existing programs, identify emerging trends, and propose innovative solutions to address societal challenges.

(ix) Crisis and Disaster Management: Public servants play a vital role in managing crises and disasters. They develop contingency plans, coordinate emergency response efforts, provide relief and support to affected communities, and facilitate recovery and reconstruction.

(x) Monitoring and Evaluation: Public servants monitor and evaluate the performance and impact of government programs and policies. They assess their effectiveness, efficiency, and outcomes, and make recommendations for improvement.

The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government, alongside the legislative and judicial branches. The executive arm of government in Nigeria plays a crucial role in governance, policy implementation, and the administration of the country. Its primary function is to execute laws, provide effective leadership, and ensure the well-being and progress of the nation and its citizens. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals. The President of Nigeria is the head of state and the head of government.


The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government. It is responsible for implementing and executing laws, policies, and programs that govern the country. The President of Nigeria is the head of the executive branch, and the office is held by the individual elected through a national election. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals.

(i)Implementation of Laws: The executive branch is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws passed by the legislature.

(ii)Protection of Civil Liberties: The executive branch is responsible for safeguarding the civil liberties and rights of citizens.

(iii)Executive Leadership: The executive arm provides leadership and direction to the government.

(iv)Checks and Balances: The executive branch acts as a check and balance on other branches of government.

(v)International Relations: The executive arm represents the country in international affairs and diplomatic relations.

(vi)Crisis Management and National Security: The executive branch is responsible for managing crises and ensuring national security.

(vii)Accountability to the Legislature and the People: The executive branch is accountable to the legislature and ultimately to the people.


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