NABTEB GCE CIVIC EDUCATION ANSWERS:ExamgrandComNg
Courage refers to the act of exercising boldness in carrying out a given task in a particular situation l. It is the firmness of mind to finish a task in the face of oppositions, obstacles and challenges
(i) Moral Courage:
This means adopting ethical practices and adhering to discipline in order to avoid being unfair to others even if others are not following the right code of conduct. It means having courage to do right even if it involves the risk of being insulted, hated or disapproved by others
(ii) Intellectual Courage:
This is the courage to choose a difficult or different path, think differently or accept new or different ideas in order to stick to truth, honesty and dignity. It is about the intelligence or brilliance to save the truth and thrive on the fact that truth and goodness always wins.
(iii) Social Courage:
This is the courage to face the society after breaking social norms which are not necessarily unethical. For example, not following a particular dress-code, opting for love marriage, choosing an alternative career, doing something that is out of the box, being different etc. This type of courage is about getting rid of fear of social embarrassment for doing something different.
(iv) Physical Courage:
This is all about making use of physical strength to deal with the problems and difficulties that arise in life. It can be related to the physical strength shown by individuals to save somebody’s life by putting his or her own life at risk. For example, saving someone from drowning, rescuing someone from the trap, saving someone from burglars and thieves etc.
(i) Protection of individual rights: The government should enact laws that will protect and ensure human rights and freedom of individual are maintained
(ii) Establishment of agencies: They play another good role in the UDHR by establishing and funding agencies such as NAPTIP and the legal aid council
(iii) Press freedom: Government is expected to ensure that freedom of press is guaranteed
(i) Individuals are to study and know their fundamental human rights and the articles of the UDHR
(ii) We must serve as a good example to others
(iii) Individual should participate in giving financial support to human rights abuse victims
(i) Life coping skill: These are those skills that we use to offset disadvantages in day to day life. It can be positive or negative. Positive life coping skills enable us to get through difficult situations while the negative life coping skills may bring about immediate satisfaction but futures consequences.
(ii) Manipulative skills: It is the ability to manipulate a thing or object with the help of the body or body part eg kicking, bouncing, throwing
(iii) Communication skills: This is the process by which information is exchanged between individuals or a group. It is the one’s ability to transfer ideas and information to others through the possible appropriate meaning.
(iv) Artist skills: These are abilities someone learns in order to create something unique. A person with artistic skills can use a variety of tools and methods to create works of art.
(v) Entrepreneur skills: These include various skill sets such as leadership, business management, time management, creative thinking and problem-solving. These entrepreneur skills are vital for promoting innovation, business growth and competitiveness.
Constitutional democracy is the type of democracy where powers of the majority are exercised within a frame work of the constitution designed to guarantee the majority right.
(i) History of the people
(ii) Freedom of the press
(iv) Periodic election
(i) History of the people: In any good acceptable constitutional democracy, the constitution must reflect the history of the people, the history of the people should be put into consideration.
(ii) Freedom of the press: The press, radio, television, newspaper and other social media are means by which citizens express their views i.e. people are free to write and make reports on governmental issues.
(iii) Convention: Constitutional democracy brings out convention through which the government follows, through the conventions skills are acquired and disseminated.
(iv) Periodic election: Free and fair election is one of the major key concepts of constitutional democracy because it allows for change in government.
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